Systemism: the alternative to individualism and holism

Mario Bunge Systemism: the alternative to individualism and holism Journal of Socio-Economics 29 (2000) 147–157

“Three radical worldviews and research approaches are salient in social studies: individualism, holism, and systemism.”

[Systemism] “is centered in the following postulates:
1. Everything, whether concrete or abstract, is a system or an actual or potential component of a system;
2. systems have systemic (emergent) features that their components lack, whence
3. all problems should be approached in a systemic rather than in a sectoral fashion;
4. all ideas should be put together into systems (theories); and
5. the testing of anything, whether idea or artifact, assumes the validity of other items, which are taken as benchmarks, at least for the time being.”

Thus systemism resembles Smuts’ Holism. Bunge uses the term ‘holism’ for what Smuts terms wholism: the notion that systems should be subservient to their ‘top’ level, the ‘whole’. This usage apart, Bunge appears to be saying something important. Like Smuts, he notes the systemic nature of mathematics is distinction to those who note the tendency to apply mathematical formulae thoughtlessly, as in some notorious financial mathematics

Much of the main body is taken up with the need for micro-macro analyses and the limitations of piece-meal approaches, something familiar to Smuts and |Keynes. On the other hand he says: “I support the systems that benefit me, and sabotage those that hurt me.” without flagging up the limitations of such an approach in complex situations. He even suggests that an interdisciplinary subject such as biochemistry is nothing but the overlap of the two disciplines. If this is the case, I find it hard to grasp their importance. I would take a Kantian view, in which bringing into communion two disciplines can be more than the sum of the parts.

In general, Bunge’s arguments in favour of what he calls systemism and Smuts called holism seem sound, but it lacks the insights into complexity and uncertainty of the original.

See also

Andy Denis’ response to Bunge adds some arguments in favour of Holism. It’s main purpose, though, is to contradict Bunge’s assertion that laissez-faire is incompatible with systemism. It is argued that a belief in Adam Smith’s invisible hand could support laissez faire. It is not clear what might constitute grounds for such a belief. (My own view is that even a government that sought to leverage the invisible hand would have a duty to monitor the workings of such and hand, and to take action should it fail, as in the economic crisis of 2007/8. It is now clear how politics might facilitate this.)

Also my complexity.

Dave Marsay

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About Dave Marsay
Mathematician with an interest in 'good' reasoning.

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