Emergence is a substantive transformation. It is not just an improbable event in a given probability distribution, it is a change in the overall probabilistic set-up: a violation of Bayes’ rule.

  • Bergson gives a metaphysical view, building on Kant.
  • Smuts gives overviews, developing ideas from Kant and Bergson.
  • Whitehead gives a more logical overview from the same grounds. Smuts and Whitehead thought that their ideas corresponded. (Keynes was a common link.)
  • Prigogine developed the ideas further, displaying plausible mechanisms.

See Also

My notes on rationality and uncertainty.

Dave Marsay

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